Municipalities are key actors in charge of public service delivery and local economic development in Madagascar. While they retain mandates and rights for resources mobilization but are left disempowered. Why? Because they not only lack sufficient and predictable funding, but they also are subject to inefficient central procedures regarding, for example, procurement and planning. So, despite the investment block grants used by municipalities through the ‘local decentralization fund’, the sphere of their discretionary decision-making remains very limited.